The Texas Military Forces is the combined military strength of Texas. It is composed of three branches, the Texas Army National Guard, the Texas Air National Guard, and the Texas State Guard; all report to the state Adjutant General and are under the command of the Governor of Texas.
It was first established by Stephen F. Austin on February 18, 1823 under the authorization of Emperor of Mexico Agustín de Iturbide, who directed Austin "to organize the colonists into a body of the national militia, to preserve tranquility," as well as to make war on Indian tribes who were hostile and molested the settlements. Later, in 1835 all of the Texian militias came under the command of Sam Houston for the provisional government of the Republic of Texas and secured independence from Mexico. Since that time the President of the Republic of Texas, and later the Governor of the State of Texas, has exercised command and control over the internal military forces of Texas.